"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."
Lord Kelvin


The EU funds, Viktor Orbán, and Lőrinc Mészáros, the Hungarian gas fitter: four graphs

8 March 2019


CRCB. 2019. The EU funds, Viktor Orbán and the performance of firms owned by Lőrinc Mészáros, the Hungarian gas fitter, in the Hungarian public tenders 2005-2018. Budapest: CRCB.

Based on the empirical analysis of the Hungarian public tenders we pointed out  that the EU funding has perverse effects in Hungary: it helps to reduce the intensity of competition, to increase the level of corruption risk and the weight of price distortion, and it generated the growth of the estimated direct social loss due to weak competition and high level of corruption risks from 2009 to 2016. The analysis on public tenders won by companies related read more

An explanatory model on the reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and on the expropriation of its research institutes

May 30 2019

CRCB. 2019. An explanatory model on the reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and on the expropriation of its research institutes. May 30 2019. CRCB Research Notes: 2019:6, Budapest: CRCB.

This short analysis deals with a possible interpretation scheme of the real objectives of the Hungarian government with the forced transformation of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) and the destitution of the network of its research institutes in 14 points. With this analysis the read more

Cronyism in Hungary. Empirical analysis of public tenders 2010-2016

17 September 2018

Istvan Janos Toth and Miklos Hajdu: Cronyism in Hungary. An empirical analysis of public tenders 2010-2016

In this paper, we use the public procurement database which contains data from more than 230,000 public tenders from 1997 to 2017. The analysis is based on data from 126,330 public procurement contracts from 2010 to 2016. The research was supported by the Hungarian National Scientific Fund (OTKA, K116860).   The focus of the analysis is public tenders (without framework agreements) won by companies related to read more

Data publication practices of public procurement authorities around the world – 2018

8 November 2018

The report deals with the results of 2018 CRCB’s survey which focused on the data publication practices of 118 public procurement authorities around the world based on an empirical analysis of their websites. We analyse two main questions: (i) how easily accessible the data of public tenders at contract level are in the analysed websites; (ii) which pieces of information in contract level are accessible in structured and downloaded format. The report describes and evaluates the data read more

Missing Data, Intensity of Competition and Corruption Risks

10 October 2018

Missing Data, Intensity of Competition and Corruption Risks.
Analysis of Contract Award Notices of Hungarian Public Procurement Published from January 2005 to August 2018. Flash Report I/2018, CRCB, Budapest, October 2018.


Report in Hungarian (pdf)
Tables & Figures (pdf, xlsx)
Report in English (pdf)

List of 268,404 analysed contract award notices, with url, date, issuer’s name and filter variable read more

The intensity of competition, corruption risks, and the winner companies

5 July 2018

Istvan Janos Toth – Miklos Hajdu: The Intensity of competition, corruption risks, and the winner companies.  Analysis of public procurement of a European capital 2011-2016. CRCB, Budapest, July 5, 2018.

The paper in Hungarian  (pdf)

Database in Stata format (dta)

Stata do file read more

The models of rent seeking and cronyism in the Hungarian energy market

27 April 2018

Istvan Janos Toth – Klara Ungar: The models of rent-seeking and cronyism in the Hungarian energy market.
The analysis of the Hungarian government – MVMP – MET case

In this paper, we analyse a regulatory decision of 2011 made by the Hungarian government as regards the Hungarian energy (gas) market and its developments. Ultimately, this regulation was clearly favourable to a private company (the MET Hungary AG and its successor the METI AG) originally owned by the Hungarian oil, read more