"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."
Lord Kelvin

Research Notes

Palkovics László 2018. június – 2019. február közötti megszólalásainak tartalomelemzése


2019. március 19.
Tóth István János, Nyírő Zsanna. 2019. Palkovics László 2018. június és 2019. február közötti megszólalásainak tartalomelemzése. 2019. március 19. Budapest: CRCB.
A tanulmányban kvantitatív és kvalitatív tartalomelemzés eszközeivel a sajtóban megjelent nyilatkozatok, tudósítások alapján elemezzük az MTA és a kormány közötti vitában Palkovics László ITM miniszter megszólalásait. Ehhez több mint 100.000 cikkből választottuk ki azokat, amelyek az MTA és a kormány konfliktusával foglalkoztak 2018. június 1. -2019. február 9. read more

The EU funds, Viktor Orbán, and Lőrinc Mészáros, the Hungarian gas fitter: four graphs

8 March 2019


CRCB. 2019. The EU funds, Viktor Orbán and the performance of firms owned by Lőrinc Mészáros, the Hungarian gas fitter, in the Hungarian public tenders 2005-2018. Budapest: CRCB.

Based on the empirical analysis of the Hungarian public tenders we pointed out  that the EU funding has perverse effects in Hungary: it helps to reduce the intensity of competition, to increase the level of corruption risk and the weight of price distortion, and it generated the growth of the estimated direct social loss due to weak competition and high level of corruption risks from 2009 to 2016. The analysis on public tenders won by companies related read more

Az MTA átalakításának és a kutatóhálózat elvételének egy lehetséges értelmezési modellje


2019 Február 28.

Az MTA átalakításának és a kutatóhálózat elvételének egy lehetséges értelmezési modellje

A rövid elemzés 13 + 1 pontban foglalja össze az MTA átalakításának és a kutatóhálózat leválasztásának egy lehetséges értelmezési modelljét.  A CRCB ezzel a munkával szeretné új szempontokkal gazdagítani az MTA átalakításáról szóló vitát és egyben segíteni az MTA-t, a magyar nemzet legrégebben fennálló intézményét.

Az read more

The intensity of competition, corruption risks, and the winner companies

5 July 2018

Istvan Janos Toth – Miklos Hajdu: The Intensity of competition, corruption risks, and the winner companies.  Analysis of public procurement of a European capital 2011-2016. CRCB, Budapest, July 5, 2018.

The paper in Hungarian  (pdf)

Database in Stata format (dta)

Stata do file read more

Bangladesh, Zambia and Hungary. Data publication practice of the Hungarian Public Procurement Authority

19 February 2018

In this research note we briefly analyse the data publication standard used by the Hungarian Public Procurement Authority regarding its official website. We compare the Hungarian protocol with the case of Zambia and Bangladesh concerning the accessibility of contract award notices. This type of document contains the most important information on public tenders. These pieces of information (the number of bidders, the contract value, the estimated value, the issuer name, the winner read more

How does the Kleptocratic State Work in Hungary?

István János Tóth – Miklós Hajdu: How does the Kleptocratic State Work in Hungary? A research note based on Hungarian public procurement data. CRCB, Budapest, January 2018.

26 January  2018

In this research note, we use the public procurement database built by CRCB, which contains data from more than 200,000 public tenders from 1997 to 2017. The analysis is based on data from 126,330 public procurement contracts from 2010 to 2016. The focus of the analysis is public tenders (without framework agreements) won by companies related to cronies and read more

Public tenders of Hungarian hospitals on the standard dissection table of the economic analysis

24 January 2018

István János Tóth – Miklós Hajdu: Public tenders of Hungarian hospitals on the standard dissection table of the economic analysis. Analysis of intensity of competition, corruption risks and price distortion of Hungarian public procurement. Budapest: CRCB, January, 2018.


In the following short paper, we analyse the contracts of a Hungarian EU-funded programme (KEOP – 5.6.0/E/15) involved in an ongoing investigation of the Hungarian Competition Authority (HCA). The investigation was started for suspect of collusion and among the suspects involved are both Hungarian owned firms and read more

Brief analysis on the cronyism in Hungary

24 December 2017

Before the issuers publish their calls for tenders, they have to calculate the estimated price of the procurement. This calculation can be based on their experience from previous tenders and on the results of market research.  The price drop between the estimated value and the actual contract price can be regarded as a proxy for measure the intensity of competition. The higher competition between the bidders will result in more intense price competition what should lead to lower read more