"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be."
Lord Kelvin

Working Papers

CRCB-WP/2017:1

September  27st  2017

Tóth, István János – Hajdu, Miklós: Versenyerősség, társadalmi veszteségek és a 25 millió forintos értékhatár rejtélye. 2009-2016 közötti magyar közbeszerzések statisztikai vizsgálata / Intensity of competition, social loss and the enigma of 25 million HUF threshold. Statistical analysis of Hungarian public procurement in the period of 2009-2016. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2017:12.

In this paper, we present evidence on some unwanted and unexpected effects of the regulation of thresholds in Hungarian public procurement. The change of Hungarian Public read more

CRCB-WP/2014:02

Czibik, Á – Fazekas, M – Tóth, B – Tóth I J: Toolkit for detecting collusive bidding in public procurement. With examples from Hungary. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2014:02.

Across the globe, the exposure of collusive behaviour of companies in procurement markets is predominantly based on qualitative information from firms or individuals involved in collusion. This makes detection rare and titled towards disintegrating bidding rings. Economic analysis, modelling and forecasting have a limited role in this field. However, the increasing availability of large read more

CRCB-WP/2014:01

Fazekas, M – Tóth, I J: From corruption to state capture:  A new analytical framework with empirical applications from Hungary. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2014:01.
State capture and corruption are widespread phenomena across the globe, but their empirical study is still highly challenging. This paper develops a new conceptual and analytical framework for gauging state capture based on micro-level contractual networks in public procurement. To this end, it first establishes a robust measure of corruption risks in public procurement transactions focusing on relationships between pairs of issuers and suppliers. Second, it searches for read more

CRCB-WP/2013:03

Fazekas, M. – Chvalkovska, J. – Skuhrovec, J. –  Tóth, I. J. – King L. P.: Are EU funds a corruption risk? The impact of EU funds on grand corruption in Central and Eastern Europe. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2013:03.

The paper explores the impact of EU funds on institutionalised grand corruption in public procurement between 2009-2012 in three countries: Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia. We analyse a unique pooled database containing contract-level public procurement information for all three countries. We develop a composite corruption risks indicator based on the incidence and logical structure of ‘red flags’ in read more

CRCB-WP/2013:02

Fazekas, M – Tóth, I. J. – King, L. P.: Anatomy of grand corruption: A composite corruption risk index based on objective data. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2013:02.

This paper develops 30 novel quantitative indicators of grand corruption that operationalize 20 distinct techniques of corruption in the context of public procurement. Each indicator rests on a thorough qualitative understanding of rent extraction from public contracts by corrupt networks as evidenced by academic literature, interviews and media content analysis. Feasibility and usefulness of the proposed indicators are read more

CRCB-WP/2013:01

Fazekas, M. – Tóth, I. J. – King, L. P.: Corruption manual for beginners. “Corruption techniques” in public procurement with examples from Hungary. Working Paper Series: CRCB-WP/2013:01.
This paper develops 30 novel quantitative indicators of grand corruption that operationalize 20 distinct techniques of corruption in the context of public procurement. Each indicator rests on a thorough qualitative understanding of rent extraction from public contracts by corrupt networks as evidenced by academic literature, interviews and media content analysis. Feasibility and usefulness of the proposed indicators are read more